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QIS Key Concepts for Early Learners: K12 Framework
About QISE Education
Quantum education at the K12 levels is just getting started. Currently, the Q12 community is focused on developing both informal and formal learning opportunities for teachers, students, and families. That encompasses new lessons, events, access to quantum technologies, and information about careers.
Background and overview of QIS K12 Framework
Introduction
The world is in the midst of a second quantum revolution due to our ability to exquisitely control quantum systems and harness them for applications in quantum computing, communications, and sensing. Quantum information Science (QIS) is an area of STEM that makes use of the laws of quantum physics for the storage, transmission, manipulation, processing, or measurement of information.
After the passage of the US National Quantum Initiative Act in December 2018 [1], the National Science Foundation and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (WHOSTP) assembled an interagency working group and subsequently facilitated a workshop titled “Key Concepts for Future Quantum Information Science Learners” that focused on identifying core concepts essential for helping precollege students engage with QIS. The output of this workshop was intended as a starting point for future curricular and educator activities [24] aimed at K12 and beyond. Helping precollege students learn the QIS Key Concepts could effectively introduce them to the Second Quantum Revolution and inspire them to become future contributors and leaders in the growing field of QIS spanning quantum computing, communication, and sensing.
The framework for K12 quantum education outlined here is an expansion of the original QIS Key Concepts, providing a detailed route towards including QIS topics in K12 physics, chemistry, computer science and mathematics classes. The framework will be released in sections as it is completed for each subject.
As QIS is an emerging area of science connecting multiple disciplines, content and curricula developed to teach QIS should follow the best practices. The K12 quantum education framework is intended to provide some scaffolding for creating future curricula and approaches to integrating QIS into physics, computer science, mathematics, and chemistry (mathematics and chemistry are not yet complete). The framework is expected to evolve over time, with input from educators and educational researchers.
Why quantum education at the K12 level?
Starting quantum education in K12 provides a larger, more diverse pool of students the opportunity to learn about this exciting field so that they can become the future leaders in this rapidly growing field. This is especially important because over the past century during which the first quantum revolution unfolded, the quantumrelated fields have lacked gender, racial, and ethnic diversity. We must tap into the talents of students from diverse demographic groups in order to maintain our leadership in science and technology. Early introduction to quantum science can include information on applications and societal relevance, which will hopefully spark excitement and lead more students into later coursework and careers in STEM. Also, starting early with a conceptual, intuitive approach that doesn’t rely on advanced mathematics will likely increase quantum awareness with more students, even those who do not pursue a career in QIS. In the long term, this will potentially improve public perception of QIS, moving it out of the weird, spooky, incomprehensible, unfamiliar realm.
What are some considerations to take into account when introducing QIS into the K12 classroom?
As an emerging field that has traditionally been the realm of advanced undergraduate and graduate study with an aura of complexity, educators designing and delivering curriculum should keep the following in mind when integrating QIS into their classrooms.
 Because existing materials in QIS are designed for more advanced students, the materials need to be adjusted to be ageappropriate for and build on prior knowledge of target students. As new educational research and data on implementation come in, the materials will change and improve over time.
 Because the area may be intimidating, and there is no expectation in college that students have already learned this, motivational goals such as higher selfefficacy and a sense of belonging and identity [511] should be on equal footing with technical goals. Therefore, classrooms should focus on the following considerations:


 Maintain a supportive atmosphere that encourages questions and exploration
 Offer collaborative, exploratory activities
 Offer a lowstakes educational setting (e.g. little time pressure without aggressive testing)
 When relevant to the STEM subject, employ a learning cycle approach to develop models of quantum systems and phenomena, plan and carry out investigations to test their models, analyze and interpret data, obtain, evaluate and communicate their findings

References
 The U.S. National Quantum Initiative: From Act to Action, C. Monroe, M. Raymer and J. Taylor, Science 364, 440 (2019)
 https://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/announcements/051820.jsp
 https://qislearners.research.illinois.edu/about/
 https://q12education.org/
 Connecting high school physics experiences, outcome expectations, physics identity, and physics career choice: A gender study, Z. Hazari, G. Sonnert, P. M. Sadler, M. C. Shanahan, Journal of research in science teaching 47 (8), 9781003 (2010)
 High school science experiences associated to mastery orientation towards learning, K. Velez, G. Potvin, Z. Hazari, Physics Education Research Conference, Mineapolis, MN (2014)
 Examining the impact of mathematics identity on the choice of engineering careers for male and female students, C. A. P. Cass, Z. Hazari, J. Cribbs, P. M. Sadler, G. Sonnert, Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), F2H1F2H5 (2011)
 Examining the effect of early STEM experiences as a form of STEM capital and identity capital on STEM identity: A gender study, S. M. Cohen, Z. Hazari, J. Mahadeo, G. Sonnert, P. M. Sadler, Science Education 105 (6), 11261150 (2021)
 Examining physics identity development through two high school interventions, H. Cheng, G. Potvin, R. Khatri, L. H. Kramer, R. M. Lock, Z. Hazari, Physics Education Research Conference (2018)
 The importance of high school physics teachers for female students’ physics identity and persistence, Z. Hazari, E. Brewe, R. M. Goertzen, T. Hodapp, The Physics Teacher 55 (2), 9699 (2017)
 Obscuring power structures in the physics classroom: Linking teacher positioning, student engagement, and physics identity development, Z. Hazari, C. Cass, C. Beattie, Journal of Research in Science Teaching 52 (6), 735762 (2015)
About the Framework Documents
Q2Work organized teacher working groups to create the different documents. Due to the differences in readiness across the subjects of Math, Physics, CS, and Chemistry each document takes a different form. In the case of Physics and Chemistry, the working groups oulined an initial set of expectations and learning goals, which will be useful to curriculum developers and teachers seeking to develop lessons and activities for teaching QIS K12 Key Concepts. In the case of the CS Focus Group , the purpose was to create a document that would be useful to curriculum developers and teachers, providing guidance about places where high school computer science learning goals can be satisfied at the same time as content in the QIS K12 Key Concepts. In Math, the document outlines learning trajectories and concept connections across middle and high school math topics.
In all cases the framework should be considered a living document and we welcome input, including additions, suggested revisions, and information on existing resources and lessons that match the framework.
Resources and Tools
The resources in this repository are created and submitted by members of the quantum education community. We review them prior to posting and provide information on suitability for different audiences. We also note when teachers have either codeveloped or reviewed the resource. Did we miss anything? Contact our team to let us know!
Textbook: Introduction to Classical and Quantum Computing
This resource is a textbook was used in an undergraduate course at Creighton University. It is based on lecture notes and homework problems from a course taught by Prof. Thomas Wong during 2018 and 2020. Some of the introductory material may be appropriate for AP High...
EPIQC informal activities for early ages
EPiQC is an NSFfunded quantum computing research program. As part of their education effort, experts in computer science education and early education have developed activities to introduce children and their families to quantum computing topics. The website of the...
Lecture notes: The Mathematics of Quantum Mechanics
The Mathematics of Quantum Mechanics is a set of notes aimed at highschool students, and provide the necessary mathematical background to dive into quantum information science. Through this threechapter introduction, students will gain the necessary background in...
QBraid
qBraid.com offers an online platform for learning about quantum information and programming on quantum computers. It is targeted at different levels, spanning high school, undergraduate. For example, nonquantum learners may visit qbook.qbraid.com/learn to access an...
Quantum Country
This resource is an online selfguided set of essays about quantum computing, quantum mechanics, and other quantum topics. It is similar to an online textbook and includes some Q & A for the reader to help reinforce concepts. The authors describe the resource as...
EdX Course: Introduction to Quantum Computing for Everyone
This is an online course offered on EdX. It is an introduction to quantum computing aimed at novices and requires learners to have an understanding of basic algebra. The course covers the future impacts of quantum computing, provides intuitive introductions of quantum...
Lesson Modules by the Institute for Quantum Computing
The University of Waterloo’s Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) has created five lesson plans for senior (12th grade) highschool Physics classes, including introductions to superposition, waveparticle duality, the uncertainty principle, quantum computing, and...
Quantum Computing Zines
Zines are short, comicbookstyle pamphlets that fit on an 8.5”x11” piece of paper and intended for general nonexpert, informal learners. The zines cover a number of quantum computing topics ranging from superposition to quantum notation. These begin with analogies...
EdX Course: Quantum Mechanics for Everyone
"This is a quantum mechanics (physics) course aimed at nonscientists and is intended to be accessible to high school level students and above who have studied Algebra II and Trigonometry. It introduces the concepts of superposition and entanglement, as well as...